I explored four different conditions for training my robots.
They are presented here in order of difficulty, beginning with the
One Adversary, Fixed Starting Position
The simplest possible experiment condition was training against a
single adversary where all battles begin from a fixed starting position.
Under this condition, I was able to reliably evolve robots that could
beat each of the bots that ship with Robocode, as well as SquigBot
In some cases, only a few generations were required. Using a population of 500 individuals, I evolved a robot that could beat Walls in only
There are at two reasons that this condition was so favorable for
my approach. First, evaluation was very fast, since only one
battle was required to evaluate an individual.
In practical terms, that meant that even
with a population of 500 individuals, an entire run could be completed
in a few hours. More importantly, however, this condition allowed
robots to develop very brittle strategies that only worked under
the precise training conditions. In general, these robots were unable
to beat adversaries other than one that they trained against. The ability
of these robots to generalize beyond their initial starting positions
was mixed. Some runs produced robots that could win fairly reliably
even at novel starting positions, but other runs produced extremely
narrow solutions that only won at a single starting point.
One Adversary, Multiple Starting Positions
Combat outcomes are very sensitive to the initial
starting position. Even an inferior robot can win easily if it starts
the battle with its radar and gun fixed on the back of an opponent
who is trapped in a corner. Thus, to produce a fair evaluation at multiple
starting positions, a reasonable sample size is necessary.
My sample sizes ranged from 10 to 25 starting positions; this had the
obvious effect of increasing the training time by a large factor.
To fairly evaluate all individuals in the same generation, I used the
same set of random starting position for each individual within a
generation. The starting positions were updated every generation
to prevent overfitting.
I chose several adversaries from the ``starter'' set, and in all cases
I was able to evolve a robot that could win more than half the time.
For example, it took 60 generation to develop a robot capable
of regularly beating SpinBot 80% of the time.
Against SquigBot, another 60 generation run produced
a robot that could win 50% of the time, but it appeared to plateau
at this result. In most cases, when the evolved robots won, the margin
was small, whereas when the hand-coded robots won, the margin was
very large. In part this was due to the fact that most of these experiments
were conducted when I was using a raw fitness function that actually
encouraged this outcome by offering a declining rate of return for
Changing the fitness function to more greatly reward the margin of victory
improved the situation somewhat.
However, to a large extent this problem was due to the fact most of my
robots never even attempted to shoot their
adversary. Instead, they won by dodging all fire until the opponent
ran out of energy.
Multiple Adversaries, Single Starting Position
The robots evolved in the previous condition typically learned
to move in a pattern that evaded their adversary's firing pattern.
Predictably, these robots had no success against other adversaries.
In this condition, I attempted to evolve robots that learned general
programs that could defeat multiple adversaries.
After 80 generations, a robot evolved that could beat four out of five
of the initial bots that ship with Robocode. The only bot that it couldn't
beat was Tracker. My robot had evolved a complex movement pattern that
avoided the fire of the other four adversaries, who would shoot from
a distance. But the tracker inevitably chased my robot down and
killed it. In another run, I trained my robot against 10 adversaries,
including SquigBot. In 51 generations, a robot evolved that could beat
four of the ten adversaries, through a combination of dodging and ramming.
Multiple Adversaries, Multiple Starting Positions
This condition was designed to produce the most general solutions:
Robots that could beat multiple adversaries from a variety of different
starting positions. Unfortunately, this condition was extremely time-consuming.
I recently began an experiment with two adveraries,
twenty random starting positions, and a population of 200.
Under these conditions, each generation took roughly 130
minutes. After 14 generations, very little progress has been made.
In the previous two conditions, 60 to 80 generations were required to
produce winning robots. Since this condition is more general
than either of the previous two, it would seem that 60 generations --
130 hours -- would be soonest that any success could be expected.
This is so fascinating! 130 hours. I think that's how long it took me to hand code a bot that could beat all SampleBots
. =) There's this thing with the SampleBots
that they all shoot with HeadOnTargeting
. Maybe that's why you reach good results in so few generations (at least few from what I would have guessed). Have you given any thought to using GeneticProgramming
for very specific tasks? Like maybe for correcting LinearTargeting
or some such. Also I think you could have some success with using GA to create a good randomized flattening movement. Since I'm not a schoolar I think it might be a too daunting task for me to try this out, but I'm tempted to check what I could do with that TABLEREX language... -- PEZ
Any chance of you publishing the code for the winning bot? I would be interested to see what kind of code can come out of a system like this. -- Tango
I would assume the code looks pretty similar for all these bots, whether evolved or not. It's just the genome string fed to the TABLEREX interpreter that changes. -- PEZ
That's right -- the java is identical, only the TABLEREX differs. I looked closely at some of the TABLREX and it was a little disappointing. A lot of lines that never connected to
the "actuators", and then stuff like "turn left (my energy)"... -- Jacob